Essential Vocabulary



Bounty - A reward, premium or subsidy, especially when offered or given
by a government. A payment for the capture of an
"outlaw." The Gestapo offered a bounty to those who turned in Jews in

Collaborator - One who cooperates treasonably with the action of an

Collective responsibility - The doctrine which asserts that a group is
responsible for the actions of its individuals, and thus
can be punished for those actions.

Deportation - The forced transport of people outside of the area where
they live.

Judenrat - Jewish councils established by the Nazis in occupied
territories to represent Jewish interests.

Kapos - Prisoners, both Jewish and non-Jewish, who served in the camps
as overseers of other prisoners, and who often
inflicted beatings and other physical pain on prisoners.

Molotov cocktail - A homemade grenade consisting of a flammable liquid
encased in a bottle.

Musselmen (Muselmanner) - "Walking dead," a term referring to those in
the concentration camps who were so totally
physically and emotionally exhausted that they became completely passive
and dependent, losing their individuality and

Partisans - Guerrilla fighters who resisted the Nazis after their
countries were overrun and occupied.

Passive resistance - Resistance which is other than through force, such
as spiritual, religious, or cultural resistance.

Resistance - Acts, both passive and active, which are non-compliance to
the demands of an authority.

Righteous Gentiles - Non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews from
being murdered by the Nazis.

Sanctions - Penalties levied by an authority for not complying with an
order or law.

Sonderkommandos - The workers at the death camps whose job it was to
clear away the bodies of those who were
murdered in the gas chambers.

Underground - A secret network which is organized to resist authority.

Wagner-Rogers Legislation - Legislation introduced in the U.S. Congress
in 1939 by Rep. Robert Wagner to admit a total
of 20,000 Jewish children over a two-year period above the refugee quota
applicable at the time.

War Refugee Board - Established by President Roosevelt in January of
1944 after receiving a report by the U.S. Secretary
of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, providing details about the "Final
Solution." The Board was to take whatever steps were
necessary to rescue the civilian victims of the Holocaust.

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising - The most serious armed resistance by the Jews
to the Nazis, which resulted in the deaths of
many German soldiers.

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